FROST DAMAGE TO STONE AND CONCRETE: GEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

FROST DAMAGE TO STONE AND CONCRETE IS DUE TO EXPANSION DURING FREEZING OF WATER. THIS PROCESS IS PRESENTED IN A DIAGRAM OF ICE WHICH IS UPDATED AND LINES OF DENSITY ADDED FOR THE PHASES WATER AND ICE 1. WATER ALSO EXPANDS 0.4% AT 1 ATM WHEN HEATED FROM 4 TO 30 C. AND 0.6% AT 1 ATM. IF UNDERCOOLED FROM 4 TO 20C. WATER IS ENOUGH COMPRESSIBLE THAT NO EXPANSION CAN TAKE PLACE FROM 4 TO 30C, IF THE CAPILLARIA WALLS CAN RESIST STRESSES TO 100 ATM WHICH ARE INSUFFICIENT TO BREAK UP SOUND ROCK. THE EFFICIENCY OF WATER TRANSPORTATION TO THE ZONE OF FREEZING IN SOILS AND ROCKS DEPENDS ON THE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CAPILLARIA, AND THE PRESENCE OF NON-SWELLING CLAY MINERALS WHICH ACT LIKE WATER PUMPS ALONG THE CHANNELS WITHOUT CLOSING THE CHANNELS. WATER IN MICROPORES, HOWEVER, IS UNFREEZABLE AND MUCH LESS MOBILE THAN WATER IN LARGER CHANNELS, IF ONLY A FEW MOLECULES THICK, ORIENTED, AND STRESSED. ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE ICE DIAGRAM ARE AS FOLLOWS: (1) THE FROST STABILITY OF STONE, IF STRENGTH, CLIMATE, AND CAPILLARIA SIZE ARE KNOWN; (2) THE STABILITY OF POINT-BEARING PILES IN MUDDY FROZEN SEDIMENTS; AND (3) THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ROCK STRENGTH IN ESTIMATES OF MINIMUM PLEISTOCENE ROCK TEMPERATURES OF FELSENMEERS. THE FREEZING PROCESS OF WATER IS KNOWN TO PRODUCE A SPONTANEOUS EXPANSION FROM A DENSITY OF ABOUT 1.000-0.9165. THE EXPANSION PRESSURE (OR CRYSTALLIZATION PRESSURE) MAY BE OF CONSIDERABLE IMPORTANCE AS IT AIDS IN THE MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF NATURAL ROCK, STRUCTURAL STONE AND CONCRETE. /RRL/A/

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  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Vol 2, No 5, PP 315-323, 4 FIG, 1 TAB, 1 PHOT, 14 REF
  • Authors:
    • Winkler, E M
  • Publication Date: 1968-8

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00212978
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Road Research Laboratory /UK
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 29 1970 12:00AM