HOW TO USE AIRPHOTOS AND MAPS FOR MATERIAL SURVEYS

IN AREAS WHERE EITHER GEOLOGIC MAPS OR SOIL-SURVEY MAPS ARE AVAILABLE, MATERIALS PROSPECTING IS RELATIVELY SIMPLE IF THE ENGINEER OR SOIL SURVEYOR UNDERSTANDS AND INTERPRETS THE TERMINOLOGY AND MAPPING UNITS USED BY THE AGRICULTURIST AND THE GEOLOGIST. THE USE OF AIRPHOTOS AND SIMPLE FIELD CHECKS REDUCES THE COST CONSIDERABLY. THIS PAPER PRESENTS INFORMATION ON HOW TO CLASSIFY ENGINEERING MATERIALS IN AN AREA USING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS, AGRICULTURAL SOIL MAPS, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS, GEOLOGICAL MAPS, AND COMBINATIONS OF THESE. ITS SCOPE IS LIMITED TO A DEMONSTRATION OF PROCEDURE AND A COMPARISON OF METHODS BASED ON SURVEYS OF FOUR AREAS IN SOUTHWESTERN INDIANA. SEVERAL TYPES OF MATERIALS ARE MAPPED AND THE MATERIALS AND THE METHODS USED TO IDENTIFY THEM ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL. FOR PURPOSES OF COMPARISON THE DISCUSSION ABOUT EACH METHOD OF SURVEY HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO: (1) PRINCIPLES, (2) TECHNIQUES, (3) KEYS, (4) LIMITATION, AND (5) EXAMPLES. THE TECHNIQUES USED ARE BASED ON EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AS RECORDED IN THE AIRPHOTOS. A SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A MATERIAL SURVEY USING AIRPHOTOS IS PROPOSED. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER THE ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN AREA IS BASED ON THE USE OF THE 'PATTERN ELEMENTS' AS THE PRIMARY INTERPRETATION KEY. EACH SITUATION IS ANALYZED FROM THE STANDPOINT OF WHAT THE VARIOUS NATURAL ELEMENTS SUGGEST ABOUT THE PROBABLE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS DRAINAGE, SOIL PROFILE DEVELOPMENT, RELATIVE TEXTURAL RANGE, AND WORKABILITY. THE LIMITATIONS OF THE AIRPHOTO METHOD FALL INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES: NATURAL LIMITATIONS ARE CAUSED BY VARIATIONS IN CLIMATE, EROSIONAL FEATURES, AND VEGETATION. PHOTOGRAPHIC LIMITATIONS INCLUDE THE TYPE OF PHOTOGRAPHY, THE SCALE OF PHOTOGRAPHS, AND THE COMPLETENESS OF STEREO COVERAGE OF THE AREA UNDER STUDY. THE HUMAN LIMITATION IS OBVIOUS AND AFFECTS EVERY PHASE OF THE PROCESS OF INTERPRETING AIRPHOTOS. THE INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL MAPS, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS, AND GEOLOGICAL MAPS FOR MATERIALS SURVEY ARE DISCUSSED IN A SIMILAR MANNER. THE FOUR AREAS USED TO ILLUSTRATE EACH METHOD IN THIS PAPER PROVIDE A PRACTICAL MEANS OF COMPARING THE RELATIVE VIRTUES OF EACH METHOD. THE COMBINED USE OF MAPS AND AIRPHOTOS IS SHOWN TO BE EXCEEDINGLY PRACTICAL. /AUTHOR/

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  • Supplemental Notes:
    • No 62, pp 1-73, 32 FIG, REFS Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved
  • Authors:
    • Mintzer, Olin W
    • Frost, R E
  • Publication Date: 1952

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  • Accession Number: 00202732
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Apr 21 1994 12:00AM