WAYS TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION THROUGH PLANNING, DESIGN, AND OPERATIONS

A COMPENDIUM OF CASE EXAMPLES IS PRESENTED THAT ILLUSTRATES HOW AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS AND CONCENTRATIONS CAN BE REDUCED THROUGH PROPER PLANNING, DESIGN, AND OPERATION OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. THESE REDUCTIONS ARE IN ADDITION TO THOSE OBTAINED BY LEGISLATIVE AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ON VEHICLES AND STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS. AIR POLLUTION COMPONENTS DISCUSSED CONSIST OF CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFUR OXIDES, PARTICULATES, HYDROCARBONS AND NITROGEN OXIDES. THE CASE STUDIES EXAMINED VARY FROM THE SIMULATION OF WORK TRAVEL AND AIR POLLUTION FOR A HYPOTETICAL CITY OF 2 1/2 MILLION PEOPLE TO INDIVIDUAL ANALYSES OF AIR POLLUTION REDUCTIONS IN TWIN CITIES, SEATTLE, MONTGOMERY AND PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTIES (MARYLAND), GREAT BRITAIN, AND OTHER AREAS. WITH RESPECT TO PLANNING, IT WAS FOUND THAT THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES, THE DEVELOPMENT OF DENSE CORRIDORS TO INCREASE TRANSIT USAGE, THE DIVERSION OF MORE TRAVEL TO FREELY OPERATING FREEWAYS, AND THE REDUCTION OF TRIP LENGTH HAVE POSITIVE EFFECTS ON REDUCING AIR POLLUTION LEVELS. FOR DESIGN, IT WAS FOUND THAT CONCENTRATIONS RESULTING FROM VEHICULAR POLLUTION CAN BE MINIMIZED IF THE HIGHWAY IS SEGREGATED FROM ADJOINING STRUCTURES EITHER BY DISTANCE OF BY OTHER OPEN SPACE BARRIERS. WHEN THESE SEPARATIONS ARE NOT POSSIBLE, VENTILATION WILL BE REQUIRED IN CASES TO MEET ACCEPTABLE AIR QUALITY STANDARDS. WITH RESPECT TO OPERATIONS, THE IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC FLOW, THE USE OF TRANSPORT PRICING POLICIES, AND THE USE OF SMALLER CARS WITH SMALLER ENGINES CAN REDUCE THE POLLUTION LEVELS FOR CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBONS SIGNIFICANTLY. /AUTHOR/

Media Info

  • Media Type: Print
  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: pp 139-157
  • Monograph Title: Social, Economic, and Environmental Factors of Transportation
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00200502
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 0309019692
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Mar 7 1972 12:00AM