THE COMING REVOLUTION IN MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS

THROUGHOUT HISTORY, THE CHANGING NEEDS OF SOCIETY HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT THEORY. THE WARFARE OF EARLY SOCIETIES LED TO MANAGEMENT POLICY THAT WAS MILITARY IN NATURE; COMMUNICATION WAS DOWNWARD BY ORDER, AND MOTIVATION WAS BASED ON FEAR. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS ABLE TO ADOPT MUCH OF MILITARY MANAGEMENT THEORY; HOWEVER, THE CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY WAS A MAJOR INNOVATION. RAW MATERIALS, LABOR, CAPITAL AND MANAGEMENT HAD TO BE EFFICIENTLY USED INDIVIDUALLY AND IN COMBINATION. THE NEED FOR EFFICIENCY LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING. METHODS FOR OPTIMIZING CAPITAL INVESTMENT RESULTED AND PIECE-WORK LABOR INCENTIVES WERE SET BY MANAGEMENT. TO OFFSET EXPLOITATION BY MANAGEMENT, LABOR UNIONS WERE CREATED. LABOR'S GOALS GREW BEYOND WAGES TO THOSE OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE, AND THE NATION'S SOCIAL CONSCIENCE WAS ALSO AROUSED. MANAGEMENT DISCOVERED PRODUCTION RATES WERE MORE INFLUENCED BY PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS THAN BY PHYSICAL WORKING CONDITIONS. BY 1950, A MAJOR EVOLUTION IN MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY WAS TAKING PLACE AND MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION WAS ESTABLISHED, SEPARATE FROM OWNERSHIP OF CAPITAL. STUDENTS OF MANAGEMENT LEARNED PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING, CONTROLLING, REPORTING, AND BUDGETING, WHILE THESE ARE STILL THE ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT, CONCERN IS TURNING TOWARD MUTUAL ACHIEVEMENT OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATION GOALS, AND TOWARD UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR. IF PRESENT TRENDS CONTINUE, FUTURE GENERATIONS WILL LOOK FOR MORE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EQUALITY; THERE WILL BE AN INCREASED TOLERANCE FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, COMPETITION WILLBE DEEMPHASIZED AND ECONOMIC GOODS WILL BE READILY AVAILABLE, RESULTING IN A NEW DEFINITION OF SUCCESS. SUCCESS WILL BE EXPRESSED AS INDIVIDUAL SELF-REALIZATION. OTHER TRENDS INDICATE THAT PERSONAL IDENTITY WILL COME MORE FROM GROUPS RATHER THAN FAMILY OR WORK RELATIONSHIPS; THAT DECISIONS WILL BE MADE MORE OFTEN BY CONSENSUS; AND THAT SENSITIVITY FOR AND EMPATHY TOWARD OTHERS WILL INCREASE. IF ALL OR PART OF THESE SOCIOLOGICAL CHANGES TAKE PLACE, THE CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT WILL NECESSARILY UNDERGO CHANGES TO OPERATE IN THE NEW SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • No 38, pp 17-20
  • Authors:
    • Cook, K E
  • Publication Date: 1970

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  • Accession Number: 00200390
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 25 1996 12:00AM