Be-in-be-out payment systems for public transport - final report

This desk study aims at a comprehensive investigation of the scope of applicability of Be-In Be-Out (BIBO) systems to payments and ticketing in theUK. In comparison to Check-In Check-Out schemes (also called Tap-In Tap-Out or Touch-In Touch-Out) using proximity smart cards, where the user has to check in while boarding and to check out while alighting, Be-In Be-Out became the common name for ticketing technologies that detect and registerautomatically the presence of a smart card in a public transport vehicle.BIBO schemes do not require any user action and are therefore "hands free". Currently BIBO is considered as the ticketing technology for non-gated public transport networks that has the highest potential in terms of user friendliness and acceptance. Compared to other ticketing schemes, BIBO provides advantages and a highly convenient solution for various groups of customers that only season ticket holders enjoyed until now. Therefore, in principle, BIBO is also relevant for public transport operators and authorities in the UK. The potential of BIBO to improve public transport ticketing is closely linked to the benefits that BIBO provides for customers, operators and authorities in general. The comprehensive analysis of the statusand future trends of development shows that several concepts have been designed, but only two systems have reached a significant level of development: the "ALLFA-Ticket" field test and the "Esprit" demonstrator. Both of these BIBO systems have been evaluated under various aspects in particular data privacy, safety and security. The applicability of BIBO for all modesof surface transport has been proven during the first BIBO pilot testing in Dresden, Germany. However BIBO is a very sophisticated technology. Therefore special considerations on technical risk and reliability, potential for fraud and resistance to fraud are examined in this study. The evaluation shows that BIBO is feasible and functionally proven; however the development of BIBO has not yet been completed. For commercial exploitation of BIBO further developments are necessary in the future. Therefore also special considerations of the commercial risk and the dissemination potential of BIBO are subject of the study. Both available BIBO systems have been designed for interoperable usage and for compliance with German electronic fare management standards. The impact of ITSO's interoperability approach onBIBO technology is analysed followed by a thorough view on BIBO and ITSO in the UK context. This view is based on ITSO's products, and on existing,planned and potential development by scheme owners of the processes to beused in terminals that handle ITSO products. It is expected that a BIBO scheme can be designed to use the ITSO data layer (and associated security methods), while applying a different technology layer for communication between the terminals and the user BIBO device, together with suitable modified application processes in the terminals. The deregulated and franchisedpublic transport markets in the UK do not easily lend themselves to widespread adoption of new ticketing technologies. Chapter 7 makes an assessment of the general market demand for BIBO in the UK, examines the challengesfacing BIBO in the UK market and draws conclusions on a possible pilot implementation in the context of assessing a business case in practice. For the full text of this report see:


  • English

Media Info

  • Pagination: 160p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01148826
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Jan 25 2010 8:50AM