Activation of Blast Furnace Slag by a New Method

Blast furnace slag is used as supplementary cementing material for the production of blended and slag cement. Its latently hydraulic properties can be activated by several methods. Most applications employ the use of high pH values in the pore solution (> 13.0) to accelerate the corrosion of the glass network of the slag. It is shown in this work that activation is also possible by lowering the pH to a range between 11.8 and 12.2 by addition of calcium hydroxide and soluble calcium salts. Among the salts investigated in this study are calcium chloride, calcium bromide, calcium nitrate, calcium formate, and calcium acetate. Other salts can be used alternatively as long as they are able to increase the calcium ion concentration and thus reduce the pH in the pore solution via the calcium hydroxide equilibrium. Complex formation of organic anions with calcium ions in the pore solution is a serious handicap when using organic calcium salts. This concept was tested on a particular slag improving its early compressive strength. It was possible to increase the strength of mortar bars produced from the pure slag from 3 MPa to 25 MPa after 7 days by adding calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and calcium acetate. The early strength of slag cement containing 80% slag was increased from 6 to 16 MPa after 2 days by adding calcium chloride. The final strength was increased from 36 to 53 MPa after 28 days (water/cement-ratio = 0.40, 20 °C). Analytical data is included to demonstrate that application of the aforementioned concept is able to increase heat liberation and degree of slag consumption.


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  • Accession Number: 01141932
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 19 2009 6:02PM