AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT REPORT - PACIFIC SOUTHWEST AIRLINES, INC., B-727, N533PS AND GIBBS FLITE CENTER, INC., CESSNA 172, N7711G, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, SEPTEMBER, 25, 1978
About 0901:47, September 25, 1978, Pacific Southwest Airlines, Inc., Flight 182, a Boeing 727-214, and a Gibbs Flite Center, Inc., Cessna 172, collided in midair about 3 nautical miles northeast of Lindbergh Field, San Diego, California. Both aircraft crashed in a residential area. One hundred and thirty-seven persons, including those on both aircraft were killed; 7 persons on the ground were killed; and 9 persons on the ground were injured. Twenty-two dwellings were damaged or destroyed. The weather was clear, and the visibility was 10 miles. The Cessna was climbing on a northeast heading and was in radio contact with the San Diego approach control. Flight 182 was on a visual approach to runway 27. Its flightcrew had reported sighting the Cessna and was cleared by the approach controller to maintain visual separation and to contact the Lindbergh tower. Upon contacting the tower, Flight 182 was again advised of the Cessna's position. The flightcrew did not have the Cessna in sight. They thought they had passed it and continued their approach. The aircraft collided near 2,600 ft m.s.l. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was the failure of the flightcrew of Flight 182 to comply with the provisions of a maintain-visual-separation clearance, including the requirement to inform the controller when they no longer had the other aircraft in sight. Contributing to the accident were the air traffic control procedures in effect which authorized the controllers to use visual separation procedures to separate two aircraft on potentially conflicting tracks when the capability was available to provide either lateral or vertical radar separation to either aircraft.
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National Transportation Safety BoardBureau of Accident Investigation, 800 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC United States 20594
- Publication Date: 1979-4-20
- Pagination: 77 p.
- TRT Terms: Air pilots; Air traffic control; Air traffic controllers; Air transportation crashes; Airline pilots; Crash injury research; Crash investigation; Crashes; Fatalities; Flight training; Human error; Human factors in crashes; Landing; Midair crashes; Navigation; Research
- Identifier Terms: Boeing 727 aircraft; Cessna 172 aircraft
- Uncontrolled Terms: Mortality
- Old TRIS Terms: Aircraft landing; Individual flying training; Visual navigation
- Subject Areas: Aviation; Operations and Traffic Management; Research; Safety and Human Factors;
- Accession Number: 00197921
- Record Type: Publication
- Source Agency: National Technical Information Service
- Report/Paper Numbers: NTSB-AAR-79-5
- Files: TRIS
- Created Date: Sep 15 1979 12:00AM