SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ZINC--CHLORINE HYDRATE BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC-VEHICLE APPLICATIONS

Public acceptance of high-performance cost-effective zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for the random-use electric-vehicle application will require meeting stringent safety and environmental requirements. These requirements revolve mainly around the question of accidental release and spread of toxic amounts of chlorine gas, the only potential hazard in this battery system. Available information in the areas of physiological effects, environmental impact, and governmental regulation of chlorine were reviewed. The design, operation, and safety features of a first commercial electric-vehicle battery were conceived and analyzed from the chlorine release aspect. Two types of accident scenarios were analyzed in terms of chlorine release rates, atmospheric dispersion, health hazard, and possible clean-up operations. The worst-case scenario, a quite improbable accident, involves the spillage of chlorine hydrate onto the ground, while the other scenario, a more probable accident, involves the release of chlorine gas from a ruptured battery case. Heat-transfer and chlorine-dispersion models, developed to analyze these scenarios, establish a firm basis for a comprehenive and factual position statement on this topic. The results of this preliminary study suggest that electric vehicles powered by appropriately designed zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries will pose negligible health or environmental hazards on the nation's streets and highways.

  • Corporate Authors:

    Energy Development Associates

    1100 West Whitcomb Avenue
    Madison Heights, MI  United States  48071

    Department of Energy

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW
    Washington, DC  United States  20585
  • Authors:
    • Kodali, S
    • Henriksen, G L
    • Whittlesey, C C
    • WARDE, C J
    • Carr, P
  • Publication Date: 1978-3

Media Info

  • Pagination: 60 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00197866
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: National Technical Information Service
  • Contract Numbers: EY-76-C-02-2966
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 15 1979 12:00AM