The purpose of this study is the rationalization of the total transportation system of export cargo (break-bulk system), and its components, the inland, port and sea subsystems. In their investigation, the authors used parametric computer simulations based on the physical distribution cost (PDC) of cargo. The inland to port transportation models consist of 7 hybrid routes, with road, rail and barge movement elements, and warehouses. From the study of these models two things became clear: a) There is the optimum combination of physical distribution elements affecting on the PDC. b) The complex inland routes should be simplified. The results of the case study of the port terminal system revealed that: a) The pier-apron-to-ship loaded cargo volume should be increased, and the use of barges for loading reduced. b) The ship out-of-harbor waiting time, and the mooring time for loading should be shortened to minimize demurrage fees. c) The annual cargo volume delivered in port should be increased to lower port facility costs. d) The berth utilization factor should be kept between 0.5 and 0.8, depending on the number of berths available. e) The cargo loading volume per ship should be increased to reduce ship management costs. In the sea transportation process, the elements affecting on physical distribution were ship D.W., and speed; the number of ships; the number of berths; and the cargo handling rate. The analysis of these elements showed that: a) The ship and port service availability factors must be regulated; a reasonable balance should be kept between them. The planning for this should be based on the annual cargo volume delivered. b) The terminal's share of the total PDC was too large. This emphasizes the need for rationalization of the port distribution process. One final general conclusion of the study is that the preferred cargo handling method is the unit load system/ it should be used in any effort to rationalize the transportation of export cargo.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Published in 30th Anniversary Commemorative Research Study Compilation.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Japan Institute of Navigation

    Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, 2-1-6 Etchujima, Koto-ku
    Tokyo,   Japan  135-8533
  • Authors:
    • Yoneda, K
    • Nishiyama, Y
    • Sugisaki, A M
    • YAMADA, T
  • Publication Date: 1978-11

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00193553
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Japan Institute of Navigation
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 25 1979 12:00AM