Emissions from off-road machines

Off-road machines consume a considerable part of diesel fuel, and as a consequence these machines produces a lot of exhaust emissions. In Sweden, as an example, 27 per cent of NOx emissions originate from off-road machines. Today, contractors in Sweden in many cases are asked to predict exhaust emissions when they make tender for construction works. Transient test-cycles are coming, but for the time being, the established method to calculate the exhaust emissions from most of the off-road machines in use today is to use data for the amount of emission measured in laboratories according to ISO 8178 or ECE R49. The emissions are usually measured at 8 (ISO 8178 C1) or 13 (ECE R49) combinations of engine speed and loading torque in static conditions. The results are then weighed together by fixed weighing factors to a single value. However, off-road machines work at very different conditions, which means that weighing factors often are very different from time to time depending on the work operation. Furthermore, in many work operations the engine speed and torque used are transient. Consequently, use of one figure for exhaust emission for off-road machines according to ISO 8178 C1 or ECE R49 may lead to major errors in calculating the emissions. Instead, work operation related weighing factors ought to be used. In Sweden, a large project has been carried out with the objective to study work operation-cycles and to develop emission factors for off-road machines. The project was divided in two major parts. Part 1 concerned driving patterns for different working operations by agricultural tractors, combine harvesters, forest machines and construction machines. These studies were carried out in the field. Part 2 concerned emissions from the engines used. This part was carried out at two different laboratories. A number of engines used in the machines that were studied in the field or engines of the same versions used in the field were tested. This project has resulted in lot of data concerning exhaust emissions from non-road machines. The data has been a useful tool for other researcher, machine owners and machine engineers (A). For the covering abstract of the conference see ITRD E212333.

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  • Publication Date: 2006


  • English

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  • Accession Number: 01102605
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: TRL
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Jun 16 2008 8:05AM