The construction of underwater tunnels (immersed-tube construction) by the lowering into a previously prepared underwater trench of a series of bulkheaded elements and the joining underwater of element to element to form an integrated whole represents a technique perfected during this century. Although early sewer and railway tunnels adopted this methodology, it was the rapid development of vehicular transportation after World War 1 that gave impetus to this type of construction. A description of the design and construction of several types of immersed-tube tunnels is set forth. An early basic element was the adaptation of an all-welded circular steel shell, with or without exterior form plates. The shell some 100 meters in length was lined with a circular ring of reinforced concrete forming the structural element. This circular steel section was particularly adapted for two-lane highway tunnels, but was later modified and improved to furnish four-lane tunnels. The practice abroad, particularly in Europe, is the construction of large rectangular box sections of reinforced or prestressed concrete to provide for up to eight lanes of traffic. A brief description of the 6000-meter long trans-bay tube in San Francisco, California is given. /TRRL/

  • Availability:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Institution of Engineers

    11 National Circuit
    Barton, A.C.T.,   Australia 
  • Authors:
    • Murphy, G J
  • Publication Date: 1978-9

Media Info

  • Features: Figures;
  • Pagination: p. 111-119

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00194014
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transportation Data Coordinating Committee
  • ISBN: 0 85825 101 9
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: May 26 1979 12:00AM