Settlement Ratio of Pile Groups in Sandy Soils from Field Load Tests

This note studies settlement ratio, R and subscript s, of pile groups in sandy soils, defined as the ratio of the settlement of a pile group to that of a single pile at the same average load per pile. 31 cases of field pile-group load tests and the corresponding field single-pile load tests were collected for this study. More than one-half of the cases consist of 3-diameter spaced, 9-pile groups. Based on the field test data, statistical analyses of R and subscript s at different load levels were conducted for pile groups with cap-ground contact (PGCs) and pile groups with freestanding caps (PGFs), respectively. The mean of R and subscript s decreases with the load level for both PGCs and PGFs, whereas the coefficient of variation of R and subscript s increases with the load level. The influence of cap-ground contact on R and subscript s does not appear to be significant based on a comparison of the mean R and subscript s values of these PGCs and PGFs. In addition, a comparative study on R and subscript s and group resistance ratio R and subscript r, which is defined as the ratio of the average resistance of a pile in a group to that of a single pile at the same settlement, was conducted to clarify possible misunderstanding between R and subscript s and pile group efficiency factor for driven pile groups in sandy soils. The value of R and subscript s compares settlement at the working load and is often larger than unity. The value of eta compares failure loads, which occur at different settlements for pile groups and their respective single piles. Eta is usually larger than unity due to soil densification and additional contributions from the cap-ground contact for PGCs.


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  • Accession Number: 01055958
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jul 31 2007 10:36PM