Assessment of Injury Potential in Aircraft Side-Facing Seats Using the ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Dummy

A project was conducted to assess the injury potential of current side facing aircraft seat configurations using the ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Dummy proposed for use in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. The ability of inflatable restraint systems to mitigate injuries in these configurations was also assessed. Impact sled tests were conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute using a side-facing sofa fixture with cushion construction representative of current business jets. The tests simulated three typical seating configurations: occupant in the middle seat, occupant seated next to a rigid wall, and occupant seated next to an armrest end closure. Two types of restraints were evaluated: a three-point body centered conventional restraint with inertia reel and a similar restraint incorporating a new inflatable shoulder restraint (airbag). The test conditions were the 16g, 44 ft/s, horizontal impact specified in 14 CFR 25.562 but without yaw. Test setup techniques were developed to ensure consistent occupant positioning. Test repeatability was assessed for some test conditions. The suitability of the ES-2 for use in aircraft seat testing was evaluated. Injury criteria were calculated from the data gathered during the tests, including criteria currently published in the Federal Aviation Regulations and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards such as the Head Injury Criteria, upper torso restraint loads, Thoracic Trauma Index, and peak lateral pelvis acceleration. Other research criteria and those identified in proposed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards were also calculated. These criteria included neck forces and moments, Preliminary Lateral Nij, Viscous Criteria, rib deflection, abdominal forces, pubic force, upper spine acceleration, and femur torsion. Results were analyzed to identify criteria relevant for aviation use and seating and restraint system configurations that indicated potential improvements in occupant protection for side-facing seats.

  • Record URL:
  • Record URL:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Federal Aviation Administration

    Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, P.O. Box 25082
    Oklahoma City, OK  United States  73125

    AmSafe Aviation

    Phoenix, Arizona  United States  85043

    TNO Defense, Security and Safety

    P.O. Box 23
    Soesterberg,   Netherlands  3769 ZG

    Federal Aviation Administration

    Office of Aerospace Medicine, 800 Independence Avenue, SW
    Washington, DC  United States  20591
  • Authors:
    • DeWeese, Richard
    • Moorcroft, David
    • Green, Tom
    • Philippens, MMGM
  • Publication Date: 2007-5


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Edition: Final Report
  • Features: Appendices; Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 32p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01054441
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: DOT/FAA/AM-07/13
  • Files: NTL, TRIS, USDOT
  • Created Date: Jul 17 2007 2:36PM