Transition from Public Monopoly to Controlled Competition in a Post Socialist Economy – Experience in the Republic of Kazakhstan

This paper describes how two phases of reform have been successfully carried out in the Republic of Kazakhstan since the country’s independence. In the first phase of reform began in 1997, and competition was permitted, private operators were allowed to enter the market, and most public-sector enterprises were privatized. Inter-urban bus services were fully deregulated. In the second phase of 2003/2004, all scheduled services became subject to contracts with the city authority that were awarded through tendering processes. In the late -1990s, minibuses emerged as a significant mode of transport in response to the decline of conventional transport. In the most recent years big buses have recovered and the minibuses are now being systematically displaced in many of the country’s cities. There are four key issues in this paper that are: (1) The reforms of 1997 and 2003, their impacts in terms of the market and industry structure, and the expected developments in the next 2-3 years; (2) The current structure and scale of the bus, trolleybus and tram sectors, and the challenges they face; (3) The emergence of the minibus sector as a significant service offer, and the primary mean of private sector entrepreneurship; and (4) The reemergence of large bus operations, currently on the basis of second-hand European buses, and the expected impact on the sector.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Print
  • Edition: First Edition
  • Features: Tables;
  • Pagination: pp 659-676
  • Monograph Title: Competition and Ownership in Land Transport Passenger Transport

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01051393
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9780080450957
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 11 2007 11:04AM