The Development, Validation and Application of a Finite Element Upper Extremity Model Subjected to Air Bag Loading

The goal of this study is to develop an efficient numerical model that displays initiation of fracture and localized tissue deformation under various impact conditions as well as correct global kinematics. Both side and front air bags can injure upper extremities when the extremity is close to the air bag module at the instance of impact. An effective research tool is important in the investigation of mechanisms of injury involved in air bag loading; and also to evaluate the improvements of ongoing air bag designs. The development of the model includes the adaptation of material properties from literature into constitutive models, the definition of kinematic constraints at articular joint locations, and the creation of a sufficiently accurate finite element mesh. The model was coupled with a computationally efficient human model, in order to make it applicable for full-scale simulations. The model was validated against cadaver experiments. Results of the study indicate that the risk of fracture to the forearm increases greatly with air bag aggressiveness and the closer one gets to the deploying front air bag. However, increasing the forearm supination angle protects the forearm from fracture.

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  • Authors:
    • Rooij, L van
    • Bours, R
    • Hoof, J van
    • Mihm, J J
    • Ridella, S A
    • Bass, C R
    • Crandall, J R
  • Conference:
  • Publication Date: 2003-10


  • English

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01050042
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 0768013364
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Technical Paper 2003-22-0004
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 2 2007 2:49PM