Thoracic Response of Belted PMHS, the Hybrid III, and the THOR-NT Mid-Sized Male Surrogates in Low Speed, Frontal Crashes

The predominant cause of crash-involved automobile occupant fatalities for people over 65 is thoracic injury, and many such fatalities occur in crashes below consumer information or compliance test speeds. Preventing lower severity crash thoracic injury will become increasingly important to automobile safety as the population's average age increases. The authors present results of a sled test series in which belted post mortem human surrogates (PMHS), with an average age of 44 years, and frontal low-speed crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used to investigate thoracic injury, kinematic, and deformation response. Simulation of a right front passenger seat occupant restrained with a standard 3-point seatbelt (not force-limited) in a mid-sized sedan was used in nine 29 km/h tests (three PMHS, three Hybrid III 50th% male ATD, and three THOR-NT ATD) and three 38 km/h tests (one PMHS, two Hybrid III). Occupants were instrumented so that thoracic accelerations and deformation contours at multiple locations were recorded. ATD occupants were also instrumented so that thoracic internal deformation via multi-point tracking systems was recorded. The PMHS maximum chest deflection range of the undeformed chest depth was 10%-19% in the 29 km/h test, with a peak mid-spine acceleration range of 21-24 g. For the Hybrid III, peak internal mid-sternal (sternum slider) deflection averages were 30 mm in the 38 km/h tests and 23 mm in the 29 km/h tests. The 14% or greater AIS+ risk of thoracic injury for people more than 69 years old corresponded with maximum sternal deflection using the Hybrid III average of 23mm in the 29 km/h tests. Such a result suggests that frontal crashes below NHTSA's consumer information and/or compliance test severities where elderly occupants are in 3-point belts without shoulder-belt force limiters could result in non-trivial thoracic injuries.

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  • Authors:
    • Forman, Jason
    • Lessley, David
    • Shaw, C Greg
    • Evans, Jay
    • Kent, Richard W
    • Rouhana, Stephen W
    • Prasad, Priya
  • Conference:
  • Publication Date: 2006-11


  • English

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  • Accession Number: 01046249
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 139780768018295
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 11 2007 1:07PM