Urban soft ground tunneling in China - experiences from Shanghai and other cities

This paper introduces the different kinds of urban soft ground tunnels in China built by shield method, immersed tube method and pipe jacking method. Although the history of urban soft ground tunneling is only around 40 years in China, enormous tunnels were built together with great progress especially since last decades. A lot of experiences and lessons gained from practices are not only valuable to Chinese tunnel engineers but also to tunneling industry in the world. In this paper we focus on the tunnel activities in Shanghai. Some significant technical features are highlighted. The most of the road tunnels in China were built by mining method. The modern tunneling methods like shield tunneling method or immersed tunneling method were only used in the cities where the ground is composed of soils. Up to now, the road tunnels built by the shield method are only found in Shanghai, and the immersed tube tunnels exist in three cities, named Shanghai, Guangzhou and Ningbo. Some project details and technical challenges are presented in this paper. As for MRT tunnels, there are about 210 km length of MRT tunnels in operation in mainland of China. MRT systems are being in operation only in four cities, while another 16 MRT lines are under construction or planning now. We focus on the planning, design and construction of MRT tunnels in Shanghai. Details of project and shield tunnelling machine are given in this paper. There are also other types of tunnels constructed or under construction by shield method or pipe jacking in China. With the development of our building infrastructure in the new century, the construction of different types of TBM projects and immersed tube tunnel projects are booming. We are looking forward to more innovative tunneling technologies to be employed in China. (A). "Reprinted with permission from Elsevier". For the covering abstract see ITRD E124500.


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  • Accession Number: 01011504
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Dec 19 2005 3:14PM