Reframing Public Participation: Strategies for the 21st Century

This article argues that legally required methods of participation in the United States are counterproductive, cause mistrust and anger, and they do not meet the most basic goals for public participation. There is ambivalence, in both practice and theory, towards the idea of participation. Both struggle with the conflict between the collective and individual interest, and between the reality that many people are never heard and the ideal of democracy. Cases are presented to illustrate the recent practice of collaborative public engagement. Research demonstrates that difficult problems like making decisions about budgets can be solved by collaborative participation. Collaborative participation can also improve the possibilities of future action by reducing the bitter disputes that divide communities. The authors suggest that a good way to conceive of participation is as a multi-way set of interactions among players that produce outcomes together.

  • Availability:
  • Authors:
    • Innes, Judith E
    • Booher, David E
  • Publication Date: 2004-12


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Print
  • Features: Figures; References;
  • Pagination: pp 419-436
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01013284
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Dec 7 2005 2:07PM