A Study of Injury Parameters For Rearward and Forward Facing 3-Year-Old Child Dummy Using Numerical Simulation

Nonuse and misuse of child restraints (car seats) is common and leads to many preventable severe injuries or deaths. Many children graduate to inappropriate restraint systems or switch from rearward to forward facing prematurely. With comparatively heavy heads and weak necks, children are vulnerable to catastrophic traction injuries to the cervical cord, and children older than 1 year retain this vulnerability. Most studies have estimated that rearward facing restraints reduce the risk of serious injury by about 80-90%. However, the age at which children should start sitting in a forward-facing position is controversial. This article reports on a study in which a multi-body dynamic simulation MADYMO model is developed for rearward and forward facing 3-year-old child dummies. The simulation is verified with experimental results. The study indicates that the upper neck forces, and the neck injury criteria can be greatly reduced by keeping the child in the rearward facing position. The authors conclude that manufacturers should be encouraged to develop car safety seats that accommodate children rear facing up to 4 years of age.

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  • Authors:
    • Emam, A
    • Sennah, K
    • Howard, A
    • Chapman, M
  • Publication Date: 2005


  • English

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  • Accession Number: 01002399
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, ATRI
  • Created Date: Jul 25 2005 12:13PM