BENZENE: A SECONDARY POLLUTANT FORMED IN THE THREE-WAY CATALYST

Benzene emissions from a relevant proportion of today's gasoline-driven passenger cars and light-duty vehicles can increase by up to 2 orders of magnitude when driving at high engine load (e.g., on highways). Under such conditions, post-catalyst benzene levels exceeded those found pre-catalyst. As a consequence, formation of benzene in the catalyst was postulated. To further reduce ambient air concentrations of benzene, these critical operating conditions must be carefully avoided. Here, we report in detail to what extent and at what operating conditions catalyst-induced benzene and toluene formation can occur. For that purpose, a EURO-1 passenger car (1.8 L, model year 1995) fulfilling the valid regulations, equipped with a new, two-layered, Pd-CeO2-AI2O3/Rh-ZrO2-AI2O3 three-way catalyst was operated at steady state on a chassis dynamometer at 100, 125, and 150 km/h at variable air to fuel ratios. Pre- and post-catalyst exhaust gas concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-, and C3-benzenes were monitored at a time resolution of 0.5 Hz by means of chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A net benzene formation window, ranging from pre-catalyst exhaust gas temperatures of 600- 730 degrees C and l-values of 0.83-0.95, with a pronounced minimum at 0.87, was observed. Dealkylation reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons are assumed to be the major pathway leading to benzene. (A)

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  • Corporate Authors:

    American Chemical Society

    1155 16th Street, NW
    Washington, DC  United States  20036
  • Authors:
    • BRUEHLMANN, S
    • FORSS, A-M
    • STEFFEN, D
    • HEEB, N V
  • Publication Date: 2005-1-1

Language

  • English

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00987075
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Mar 3 2005 12:00AM