As technology evolves from a passive tool to a highly independent agent, it is becoming increasingly important to support operators in coordinating human and machine intentions and actions. A way to possibly achieve this goal is the context-sensitive use and implementation of varying automation management strategies. This study examined pilots' preferences for and their operational experiences with 3 different strategies: management-by-consent, management-by-exception, and full automation. Pilots expressed a strong preference for management-by-consent in which the automation cannot take action unless explicit pilot consent has been received. High time pressure, high workload, and low task criticality led to a shift in pilots' preferences toward management-by-exception in which automation can initiate actions on its own. These preferences can be explained somewhat by pilots' operational experiences with existing cockpit systems that illustrate that human--machine coordination is a complex process involving the negotiation of multiple goals, activities, and strategies rather than simply assuming manual control in case of disagreements.

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  • Corporate Authors:

    Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Incorporated

    10 Industrial Avenue
    Mahwah, NJ  United States  07430-2262
  • Authors:
    • Olson, W A
    • Sarter, N B
  • Publication Date: 2000


  • English

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00800385
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 16 2000 12:00AM