Coupled flow theories and systems, introduced from the 1960s to the 1990s, are critically reviewed in relation to their applicability for investigating the coupled migrations of groundwater and dissolved species through clay barriers. Most of these theories and systems are based on irreversible thermodynamics. Katchalsky and Curran developed theories for noncharged and electrolyte solutes in discontinuous systems consisting of a membrane separating solutions of a single solute dissolved in water. Olsen developed an experimental system to investigate the applicability of the force-flux relationships in Katchalsky and Curran's electrolyte theory for soil. Greenberg et al. and Yeung and Mitchell derived theories for continuous systems with noncharged and electrolyte solutes that are based on most of the thermodynamic concepts and assumptions in Katchalsky and Curran's theories. Alshawabkeh and Acar developed a theory based on the kinetics of ion diffusion, electrodiffusion, and advection; a phenomenological relationship for advection in response to hydraulic and electric gradients; and the mechanisms by which electric charge is transferred between carbon electrodes and solutions. This review shows that the abilities of these theories to analyze the migration of groundwater and dissolved species through clay barriers are limited. A more general coupled flow theory is needed that takes into account multiconstituent pore fluids, ion exchange, and all the coupling mechanisms involved. This model should be developed from irreversible thermodynamics and should consider the simultaneous fluxes of liquid, solutes, and electric charge in response to hydraulic, solute concentration, and electric potential gradients.


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References;
  • Pagination: p. 57-64
  • Serial:

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00800123
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 030906693X
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Oct 6 2000 12:00AM