This report describes the objectives, methods, and findings associated with Task A: Perform Literature Review. The purpose of Task A is to conduct a review of relevant symbols and research, including the use of symbols by manufacturers and after-market vendors for existing and planned in-vehicle systems. The methodology employed to complete Task A included: examining articles collected as part of Battelle's previous guideline development efforts, conducting extensive database searches, and accessing the Internet to gather information regarding the most current use of symbols in existing and future in-vehicle information systems (IVIS). More than 200 articles, several books, and more than 100 websites were found via this methodology. On the basis of this review and analyses of the literature for icon and symbol research and current applications, the authors developed the following conclusions: (1) the lack of guidelines and standards for icons has resulted in design by consensus, a lack of scientific rigor in icon development, and multiple icons for the same messages; (2) existing literature and standards provide little guidance for the design of new icons for IVIS devices; (3) general design principles for icon design are sufficient to avoid development of a "bad" icon, but are not specific enough to support development of the "best" icon; (4) development of new icons and symbols for in-vehicle devices will require iterative testing and evaluation; existing test and evaluation methods provide sufficient scientific rigor for future evaluations of icons and symbols; and (5) despite industry concerns over the utility and relevance of human factors design guidelines, rigorous and proven methods for design guideline development exist and will be used in Tasks C and F of this project.


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: Appendices; Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 247 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00798971
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: FHWA-RD-98-164,, Literature Review
  • Contract Numbers: DTFH61-97-C-00061
  • Files: NTL, TRIS, USDOT
  • Created Date: Sep 20 2000 12:00AM