Understanding how best to present warning information is a complex undertaking. This study developed an integrative perspective on the empirical evidence supporting the influence of particular variables on the warning process based on a broad review of the warning literature. The warning process is described in terms of the following four components: notice, encode, comprehend, and comply. Relevant variables are classified as person variables (characteristics of the individual interacting with the warning) and warning variables (characteristics of the warning itself or the context in which the warning appears). This integrative perspective yields general principles about the variables that influence the warning process and serves as a resource for warning developers and as a guide to facilitate effective analysis of warnings. The study also identifies aspects of the warning process that are not well understood, directions for effective methods of intervention, and a research agenda for future efforts. Actual or potential applications of the research include improving the design of warnings.

  • Availability:
  • Supplemental Notes:
    • This research was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (National Institute on Aging), Grant No. P50 AG11715, under the auspices of the Center for Applied Cognitive Research on Aging.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

    P.O. Box 1369
    Santa Monica, CA  United States  90406-1369
  • Authors:
    • Rogers, W A
  • Publication Date: 2000


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: p. 102-139
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00795822
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Contract Numbers: P50 AG11715
  • Files: TRIS, ATRI
  • Created Date: Aug 1 2000 12:00AM