The responses of the human neck in forward flexion (0 deg.), extension (180 deg.), lateral flexion (90 deg.) and oblique lateral flexions (45 deg. and 135 deg.) were studied using human volunteers as test subjects in both static and dynamic environments. The shear reaction and torque at the occipital condyles were obtained. Static results show that when the neck is in its upright position, a maximum voluntary neck torque is 37.0 ft-lbs in 0 deg. flexion; 15.0 ft-lbs in 180 deg. extension; 35.0 ft-lbs in 90 deg. lateral flexion; 40.5 ft-lbs in 45 deg. flexion; and 24.0 ft-lbs in 135 deg. flexion. For dynamic exposures, the maximum neck torque was 34.5 ft-lbs in the 0 deg. flexion and 22.5 ft-lbs in the 180 deg. extension. The neck response curves for the 0 deg. flexion and 180 deg. extension runs are all within the envelopes established by Mertz and Patrick. For the 90 deg. lateral flexion, a maximum dynamic value of 33.3 ft-lbs were attained without injury. A preliminary response envelope is proposed based upon the limited data obtained on the volunteers. Further studies are required to investigate the nedt injury mechanism for the 45 deg. and 135 deg. lateral flexions, consequently no neck response curves and response envelopes for these modes are given.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Research was sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers Vehicle Research Institute.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Wayne State University

    Biomechanics Research Center
    Detroit, MI  United States  48202
  • Authors:
    • PATRICK, L M
    • Chou, C C
  • Publication Date: 1976-4-16

Media Info

  • Features: Appendices; Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 171 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00142038
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: VRI-7.3 Final Rpt.
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 16 1977 12:00AM