A REVIEW OF MINOR ELEMENT EFFECTS ON THE WELDING ARC AND WELD PENETRATION

A critical review of all the available literature pertaining to welding arc and weld penetration has been undertaken. The review revealed several studies which indicate that the intentional or unintentional addition of small amounts of halides to the base material significantly improves weld penetration. The presence of oxygen in the weld materials has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on the depth and shape of the weld. Various other elements present in the base material have been alluded to as a means of changing the penetration characteristics of the GTAW process. In particular, aluminum addition to the arc or excessive aluminum in the base material has been observed to produce a flared arc at the anode surface. In many cases these changes are accompanied by variations in the arc voltage which, if properly interpreted can act as a warning signal for potential problems. The general conclusion of all the published reports stress the need for additional systematic study and further research into this problem area in order to understand the causes and effects that have been noted experimentally. An attempt has therefore been made to provide some beginning and rationale for understanding how the properties of minor elements can affect the factors which influence weld penetration. In particular, the factors discussed relate to changes in the work function of both the anode and cathode surfaces, the arc voltage and arc configuration, in addition to surface tension effects of the weld puddle and arc stability. In order to provide much-needed additional experimental data to this problem area, a spectroscopic analysis of a typical GTAW arc was undertaken and a simple test initiated to determine the "penetration" qualities of various heats of EN 82 filler material. The results and conclusions of these studies are reviewed.

  • Supplemental Notes:
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  • Corporate Authors:

    Welding Research Council

    345 East 47th Street
    New York, NY  USA  10017
  • Authors:
    • Glickstein, S S
    • Yeniscavich, W
  • Publication Date: 1977-5

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00163058
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Welding Research Council Bulletin
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Bulletin No. 226
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 28 1977 12:00AM