This report reviews the current simplified procedures for evaluating the liquefaction resistance of granular soil deposits using small-strain shear wave velocity. These procedures were developed from analytical studies, laboratory studies, or very limited field performance data. Their accuracy is evaluated through field performance data from 20 earthquakes and in situ shear wave velocity measurements at over 50 different sites (124 test arrays) in soils ranging from sandy gravel with cobbles to profiles including silty clay layers, resulting in a total of 193 liquefaction and non-liquefaction case histories. The current procedures correctly predict high liquefaction potential at many sites where surface manifestations of liquefaction were observed. Revisions and enhancements to the current procedures are proposed using the compiled case history data. The recommended procedure follows the general format of the SPT- and CPT- based procedures. Liquefaction potential boundaries are established by applying a modified relationship between shear wave velocity and cyclic stress ratio for constant average cyclic shear strain suggested by Dobry. These new boundaries, which are simply defined mathematically and easy to implement, correctly predict moderate to high liquefaction potential for more than 95% of the liquefaction case histories. Additional case histories are needed of all types of soils that have and have not liquefied during earthquakes, particularly from deeper deposits (depth > 8m) and from denser soils (V sub S > 200 m/s) shaken by stronger ground motions (a sub max > 0.4 g), to further validate the proposed procedures.

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  • Supplemental Notes:
    • This report is available on the CD-ROM, Proceedings of the TRB Workshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction Analysis, Washington, DC, January 10, 1999.
  • Corporate Authors:

    National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

    State University of New York, Buffalo, Red Jacket Quadrangle, Box 610025
    Buffalo, NY  United States  14261-0025

    Brigham Young University

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
    Provo, UT  United States  84602
  • Authors:
    • Andrus, R D
    • Stokoe, K H
  • Conference:
  • Publication Date: 1997-12-31


  • English

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  • Accession Number: 00758965
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Technical Report NCEER-97, -0022
  • Files: NTL, TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 26 1999 12:00AM