Bad ground terminology refers to ground that has adverse geological characteristics that make optimum construction progress impossible. Specifically in rock tunnels these negative characteristics include badly fractured and jointed rock; rock-subjected to chemical or physical change or both in the presence of air and water; swelling rock; running ground; and, explosive or poisonous gases. Various techniques and procedures to minimize these negative effects are described. All cases of bad ground whether in rock or in earth are more effectively dealt with if the existence of negative characteristics is known before the work starts. Equipment and methods can be selected and devised to deal with the conditions or combination of conditions that will be encountered. Further research in bad ground tunneling should be directed towards being able to predict the presence of bad ground so that the element of surprise is eliminated; tunnel boring machines should be developed to operate efficiently in both good and bad ground; research should be directed towards reducing the costs of bad ground stabilization by means of chemical consolidation or ground freezing; and, methods or techniques should be developed by which the face can be quickly treated from within the tunnel to make it sufficiently stable to stand unsupported for the relatively short time necessary blasts.

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    • This article appeared in TRB Special Report No. 171, Tunnel Construction: State of the Art and Research Needs. Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved
  • Corporate Authors:

    Transportation Research Board

    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC  United States  20001
  • Authors:
    • Nadel, Norman A
  • Publication Date: 1977

Media Info

  • Media Type: Print
  • Pagination: pp 12-13
  • Serial:

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00156034
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Oct 13 1977 12:00AM