A controlled experiment was conducted to determine the relative importance of pedestrian, vehicle, and situational factors in influencing drivers to give way to crossing pedestrians. The following variables were combined in a complete factorial design; (1) type of crossing; (2) distance between oncoming vehicle and pedestrian; (3) orientation of pedestrian; (4) number of pedestrians; and (5) approach velocity of vehicle. Trained pedestrians performed the start of an ordinary street crossing attempt and interacted with regular drivers whose response was measured in terms of changes in vehicle velocity. The experiment was replicated at two sites for a total of 960 crossing trials. The results show that drivers slowed down, or stopped more, for crossing pedestrians when: (1) the approach speed of the vehicle was low; (2) the crossing took place on a marked crosswalk; (3) there was a relatively long distance between the vehicle and the pedestrian's point of entry into the road; (4) a group of pedestrians, rather than an individual, attempted to cross; and (5) the pedestrian did not look at the approaching vehicle. Additionally, female drivers and older drivers slowed down more than other drivers. Implications of the results for pedestrian safety, road design, and further research are discussed.

  • Availability:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Human Factors Society

    Johns Hopkins University Press
    Baltimore, MD  United States  21218
  • Authors:
    • Katz, A
    • Zaidel, D
    • Elgrishi, A
  • Publication Date: 1975-10

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00150442
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 27 1977 12:00AM