In 1992, the city of Richmond, Virginia, was moving forward on a $35-million plan to eliminate combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by constructing a 7,000 ft (2,133 m) pipeline to collect CSO outfalls from the north bank of the James River. At the same time, a group of private investors were making plans to restore the city's historic Haxall/Kanawha Canal system. When the groups met to explore possible alignments for the sewer, they realized that combining the projects could save considerable amounts of time and money. However, placing the combined sewer line beneath the canal was a challenge, because the canal crosses roads, bridges, sewers, a railway, and highway piers. The design called for the CSO line to be located 20 ft (6 m) below the base of the canal. These close quarters required designers to modify existing sewers and flood control structures. Engineers had to cut down the arch sewer without interrupting the tunnel's operations to provide a flat surface for the canal base. A massive concrete framing system and hooked reinforcement supported the arch during construction. Despite the regulatory complications, the teams resolved myriad environmental and technical issues and the CSO and canal rehabilitation projects are now poised for success. With the CSO lines controlling flooding, the public can reclaim Richmond's riverfront area. Over the next decade, the revitalized downtown area is expected to create 6,000 new jobs and $60 million in additional tourism revenue, in addition to approximately $10 million annually in new tax revenues.


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  • Accession Number: 00778167
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 17 1999 12:00AM