URBAN DESIGN AND PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE

The air pollutant carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by incomplete combustion in motor vehicles, space heating, industrial processes, and incineration. Current research indicates that higher density residential developments, because they lead to reduced demand for fuels for home heating and transportation, tend to lower total carbon monoxide emissions. However, it is in these same areas that concentrations of CO are the highest because of the density of emitters. Since carbon monoxide standards specify maximum allowable concentrations rather than emissions, they tend to deter further development in locations where concentrations are already high - i.e., high density downtown areas. This deterrent effect contributes to greater total emissions of carbon monoxide; hence, it may be desirable to devise a means of controlling the public's risk of exposure to high CO levels in downtown areas without deterring new center city residential development. In protecting the public from the risk of exposure to damaging levels of carbon monoxide, two approaches are possible; the pollutant's concentration may be lowered by traffic management measures or the public's rate of exposure may be reduced through urban design features. The present emphasis on traffic management stresses improving the flow and reducing the level of traffic, goals that are extremely costly to achieve in downtown areas. This paper examines ways to reduce risk of exposure by the physical design of new downtown residential developments. The concept is not a novel one, having been successfully implemented in industry to provide occupational health and safety. (ERA citation 02:025274)

  • Corporate Authors:

    Argonne National Laboratory

    9700 South Cass Avenue
    Argonne, IL  USA  60439

    Energy Research and Development Administration

    20 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
    Washington, DC  USA  20590
  • Authors:
    • Santini, D J
  • Publication Date: 1976-10

Media Info

  • Pagination: 10 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00159142
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: National Technical Information Service
  • Contract Numbers: W-31-109-ENG-38, NSF-AG-352
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 31 1977 12:00AM