This paper reviews the literature on 'barriers', borders, and frontiers (BBFs), with specific reference to their effects on transport flows; it also discusses relevant model specification and estimation. Several studies have attempted to quantify the effects of BBFs on transport costs and demands, and the paper presents a selection of these studies. U Blum and F Leibbrand (1995) estimated the effects on transport flows of barriers as applied to business trip data. Their data set consisted of road business flows for 1985 between 95 European regions, 79 of which were inside West Germany. F Bruinsma and P Rietveld (1994) examined barriers in the European road network, especially the accessibility of conurbations; they measured the accessibility of each conurbation by using a gravity-type model where travel time is the main indicator. R Maggi (1994) examined European integration and the role of transport-related barriers at national borders, from the assumptions that the law limits the extent of the market, and that barriers can be identified in discontinuities in distance decay. The paper also reports the results of estimations of passenger rail flows from two types of interoperability models in the European Commission (EC) SORT-IT Project. They show that barriers substantially affect passenger demand and generalised cost.

  • Corporate Authors:

    University of Oxford

    Transport Studies Unit, 11 Bevington Road
    Oxford,   United Kingdom  OX2 6NB
  • Authors:
    • SHIRES, J D
  • Publication Date: 1998


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: 28 p.
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00769947
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Oct 7 1999 12:00AM