An assessment of the pedestrian safety literature, A state-of-the-art review of crosswalk illumination, an analysis of Philadelphia accident data, a series of observational experiments and a preliminary cost-benefit analysis is presented. The major conclusions of the research are (1) extensive specialized crosswalk illumination systems are in operation in Switzerland, Copenhagen, Hanover, Toronto, Winnipeg, Las Vegas and Detroit, (2) the effect of the foreign systems has been a reduction in nighttime pedestrian accidents at illuminated crosswalks ranging from 20% in Toronto (day and night) to 63% in Hanover (nighttime only), (3) costs of such specialized illumination are about $ 2,000 per installation plus $ 250 per year for maintenance and operation, and (4) the benefit/cost ratios obtainable with such systems appear to be between 0.2 and 3.6 with an average of about 1.5. In addition, the observational experiments have tended to indicate that the following factors are most related to the likelihood of nighttime pedestrian crossing accidents: (1) pedestrian factors: approach direction, approach search patterns, approach and crossing speed, searching time, action taken and erratic or inappropriate behaviour, (2) driver factors: arrival density, vehicle direction, and visual obstruction and (3) there was a significant difference in almost all of the preceding pedestrian and driver factors between signalized and non-signalized intersections, between day and night conditions and between wet and dry conditions. /TRRL/

  • Corporate Authors:

    International Federation of Pedestrian Assoc

    Passage 61 III
    S-Gravenhage,   Netherlands 
  • Authors:
    • Janoff, M S
    • Schwab, R
  • Publication Date: 1975

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00136447
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Norwegian State Highway Laboratory
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Conf Paper
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 16 1976 12:00AM