IMPACT OF OIL OPERATIONS ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
The fate and effects of oil in the marine environment, controversies surrounding the question of receiving facilities for ballast water, the issue of double bottoms of tankers, the impact of offshore production platforms on marine life and fishing activities, and measures to prevent oil spills and facilitate cleanup are discussed, with concentration on activities in the U.S. The influence of environmental factors, such as evaporation, dispersion, and photooxidation, on oil spills is discussed. The depuration of Pacific oyster is shown with concentration measurements of various petroleum hydrocarbons listed. Toxicity limits (median tolerance 96 hr) are determined for several marine organisms when exposed to different crude oils and No. 2 fuel oils. Reference is made to analytical methods for isolating and measuring highly complex hydrocarbon fractions such as polynuclear aromatics. Improvements in oil spill prevention and cleanup methods and the oil industry's cooperative efforts in this field are reviewed. Pollution liability agreements, including TOVALOP, CRISTAL, and Oil Insurance Limited, are explained. Technical means for environmental protection in all phases of offshore operations, such as on platforms, on tankers, and in terminals, are discussed.
- Proceedings of Petroleum and Environmental Conservation Conference, held in Teheran, Iran, April 7-9, 1975.
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA), London, ZZ N/A
- Mertens, E W
- Publication Date: 1975
- Pagination: p. 155-181
- TRT Terms: Deterioration; Monitoring; Oil spill cleanup; Oils; Tankers
- Old TRIS Terms: Double bottom tankers; Oil degradation; Oil spill monitoring
- Subject Areas: Environment; Marine Transportation;
- Accession Number: 00139780
- Record Type: Publication
- Source Agency: Pollution Abstracts
- Report/Paper Numbers: Proceeding
- Files: TRIS
- Created Date: Oct 6 1976 12:00AM