Approximately 76 cu m (100 cu yd) of ready-mixed, air-entrained concrete were placed in a parking lot and driveway at the Schwing America Manufacturing facility in White Bear, Minnesota, on June 21, 1994. This concrete was placed by means of a pump, crane and bucket, and truck-mounted conveyor, and came directly from the chute of ready-mix trucks. Pump configurations were used that allowed unrestricted free-fall of the concrete; a kink in the rubber hose at the end of the line created a slight back pressure and slowed the descent of the concrete. After placement, the concrete was consolidated by an immersion vibrator in some locations and struck off with no further consolidation in other locations. Air content of the fresh concrete was measured by ASTM C231 pressure meters at the truck chutes and at the point of placement. Air content and air-void system parameters of the hardened concrete were determined in accordance with ASTM C457. Actual freeze-thaw performance was evaluated by ASTM C666 for concrete sampled from the truck chute and sampled from the pavement after placement by the various methods. Twenty-four tests of air content of concrete from six successive truckloads of concrete showed that the variation in truck-to-truck air content was frequently greater than the within-truck variation because of different methods of handling the concrete. Tests of the fresh concrete after pumping, conveying, chuting, and free-fall from the concrete bucket showed reduced air content. From analysis of the hardened concrete, it was observed that the air bubbles remaining in the pumped concrete were smaller than in the concrete as delivered. The air-void spacing factor was not significantly altered by pumping. In ASTM C666 freezing and thawing tests, the specimen experiencing the greatest loss of air content as a result of pumping was determined to have the lowest total air content of all specimens tested (before vibration), yet had the highest durability of all specimens tested.


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Media Info

  • Features: Figures; Photos; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: p. 1-8
  • Serial:

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00727328
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 0309059046
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Oct 21 1996 12:00AM