PEDAL CYCLE HELMET EFFECTIVENESS: AN INVESTIGATION OF PEDAL CYCLE HELMET PERFORMANCE AND BIOMECHANICAL ASPECTS OF HEAD IMPACT INJURY
Three inter-related projects were undertaken to investigate pedal cycle helmet performance in accidents and related biomechanical aspects of head impact injury. In the first project, 42 pedal cycle accidents were investigated. In each accident the cyclist wore a helmet and received an impact to the helmet. There were four fatal accidents. Nine cyclists sustained a mild head injury, mostly concussion. Concussion resulted most frequently from lateral helmet impacts close to the rim. On impact, soft-shell helmets tended to disintegrate into separate pieces. Free-fall impact tests were performed on matched exemplar helmets to reproduce the impact damage observed with individual collected helmets. Impact velocity and head acceleration were measured. In the third project, 21 lateral and occipital head impacts were performed on 17 unembalmed cadavers under conditions derived from the first two projects. A rigid flat impact surface plus or minus damping material was used. Estimated head centre of gravity linear and angular accelerations were measured and calculated using the 9-accelerometer method. Subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhages were observed mainly over the contre-coup region. Linear skull fractures also occurred in undamped impacts. (a) Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Centre for Biomedical Engineering at the University of New South Wales.
University of New South WalesInjury Risk Management Research Centre
Sydney, New South Wales Australia 2052
- MCINTOSH, A
- Publication Date: 1995-3
- Features: References;
- Pagination: 270 p.
- TRT Terms: Acceleration (Mechanics); Biophysics; Cadavers; Crash severity; Crashes; Cyclists; Evaluation and assessment; Fatalities; Head; Helmets; Impact tests; Injuries; Injury severity; Loss and damage; Protective clothing; Speed; Theses
- ITRD Terms: 5405: Acceleration; 1643: Accident; 2060: Biomechanics; 2093: Cadaver; 1687: Crash helmet; 1742: Cyclist; 1614: Damage; 9020: Evaluation (assessment); 1602: Fatality; 1648: Impact test (crash); 2163: Injury; 1623: Severity (accid, injury); 5408: Speed; 8597: Thesis
- Subject Areas: Pedestrians and Bicyclists; Research; Safety and Human Factors;
- Accession Number: 00729049
- Record Type: Publication
- Source Agency: ARRB Group Ltd.
- Files: ITRD
- Created Date: Dec 12 1996 12:00AM