Two investigations were initiated, in 1959 and 1961, to evaluate the long-term performance of plain and reinforced concrete beams in a tidal seawater exposure where there is no freezing and thawing. Major variables include cement composition, water-cement ratio, cement factor, pozzolon, atmospheric steam curing, type of steel reinforcement--prestressed or unstressed--and storage in or immediately above seawater. Performance monitoring consisted of visual evaluation, ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity determinations, and electrical potential measurements. This report covers test periods of 32 and 34 years. Results, based primarily on visual inspections referenced to a numerical rating system, indicate that all plain concrete mixtures display excellent resistance to seawater attack, regardless of cement composition, water-cement ratio, cement factor, the use of pozzolan, and method of curing. Results for steel-reinforced beams indicated performance of the concrete similar to that for the plain concrete beams. However, severe cracking due to corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel developed in some beams stored above high tide, while only minor or no cracking developed in companion beams stored in seawater near mean tide level.

  • Corporate Authors:

    Portland Cement Association

    5420 Old Orchard Road
    Skokie, IL  United States  60077
  • Authors:
    • Stark, D
  • Publication Date: 1995


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 55 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00723590
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: PCA R&D Serial No. 2004
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jul 25 1996 12:00AM