REAL-WORLD EMISSIONS FROM MODEL YEAR 1993, 2000 AND 2010 PASSENGER CARS
Automotive emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are major factors in metropolitan air pollution in the U.S. There are three major sources of exhaust emissions: test, off-cycle, and malfunction, i.e. emissions measured in the regulatory or certification tests, the excess caused by driving at higher power than in the tests, and the excess caused by malfunction of on-board emissions control systems (ECS), respectively. This report focuses on the two loopholes in the exhaust emissions control program: off-cycle and malfunction emissions. Malfunction emissions occur in modern cars because some models do not have robust ECS. This result supports criticism from other directions that inspection and maintenance (smog check) programs aimed at malfunction of individual vehicles are stop gap at best. In contrast, if new information technologies, such as remote sensing and on-board diagnostics, are developed and used to identify malfunction prone models and to motivate the design and manufacture of models with robust ECS, then substantial emissions reductions can be achieved before MY2010.
- Sponsored by The Energy Foundation, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under a U.S. DOE contract and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Energy Research under a U.S. DOT FHWA contract.
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 801
Washington, DC United States 20036
- Ross, M
- GOODWIN, R
- Watkins, R
- Wang, M Q
- Wenzel, T
- Publication Date: 1995-11
- Features: Appendices; Figures; References; Tables;
- Pagination: 110 p.
- TRT Terms: Air pollution sources; Carbon monoxide; Diagnostic tests; Emission control systems; Emissions testing; Exhaust gases; Hydrocarbons; Measurement; Mechanical failure; Nitric oxide; Nitrogen oxides; Onboard navigational aids; Pollutants; Remote sensing
- Uncontrolled Terms: Diagnostics
- Old TRIS Terms: Hydrocarbon emissions; Off cycle; On board
- Subject Areas: Highways; Vehicles and Equipment;
- Accession Number: 00722151
- Record Type: Publication
- Files: TRIS
- Created Date: Jun 17 1996 12:00AM