This paper describes lower limb injuries which might be assessed for current or proposed barrier tests for belted drivers in frontal impacts. Injury and impairment were rated using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS). Both emphasised the importance of fracture, especially to the ankle/foot region. AIS equal to or greater than 2 and IIS equal to or greater than 1 injury rates were high with small driver side (right side) overlaps. However, a high rate was also found for wide overlap impacts with driver side load concentration. Passenger shell intrusion was frequently associated with injuries of AIS equal to or greater than 2 and ISS equal to or greater than 1. Injuries of this type occasionally occurred with low intrusion and at low impact speeds. The injuries will be important in view of the frequency of those types of crashes in the tow-away population. Femur and ankle/foot fractures were sustained predominantly by the right limb. It is recommended that further experimental work is carried out. The aim is to determine the specific injury mechanisms involved with different intrusion levels at given impact speeds. (A) For the covering abstract of the conference see IRRD 875833.


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  • Accession Number: 00719794
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV
  • ISBN: 1-56091-622-2
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Apr 26 1996 12:00AM