This paper describes an analysis of roof contacts in inverted impacts. The proven methodology of lumped mass modeling is used to evaluate the effect of a number of variables on neck loading. Several parameters were evaluated included roof strength, drop height, head clearance, restraint use and stiffness, roof padding and neck stiffness. In general, the simulation results agreed well with existing head first impact test data. However, interesting results were obtained when neck stiffness was varied to represent the difference between human-like and Hybrid III spring rates. Biomechanical data generally agrees, independent of test methodology, that the Hybrid III neck is at least 10 times as stiff as a cadaver neck. Hybrid III force levels were more or less the same independent of roof stiffness. Since neck injury potential is, apparently, a function of both magnitude and duration, this modeling indicates the potential for a weak roof to increase the likelihood of injury in a rollover collision. For the covering abstract of the conference see IRRD 875168.


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  • Accession Number: 00719695
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV
  • ISBN: 1-56091-627-3
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 950654
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Apr 26 1996 12:00AM