Holland has 22 immersed tunnels (14 road, 5 rail and 3 utilities tunnels). Another three are under construction, and more are foreseen. The tunnels are of the concrete type, ie constructed without a steel shell. The paper describes developments in technology and in design philosophy since the first immersed tunnel was completed 52 years ago. These developments include, amongst others: the introduction of the Gina rubber gasket between elements; the division of elements into sections divided by flexible joints; the application (if possible) of longer elements (up to 268 m); the use of precast sections for tunnels that have a small cross-section; the omission of the watertight lining (made possible by cooling the concrete of the walls during the first days after pouring); various foundation methods (eg sand flow instead of sandjet system; piled foundations when necessary); the use of the excavation for the open ramps (or the part of the tunnel built on land) as a casting basin for the elements; the changed approach to casting basins now that well pumping is usually forbidden; and the transport of the elements across shallow locations and across the sea. It is emphasized that the current state of immersed tunnel technology is the result of a continuous international exchange of ideas and experiences. (A)

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    The Boulevard, Langford Lane
    Kidlington, Oxford  United Kingdom  OX5 1GB
  • Authors:
    • GLERUM, A
  • Publication Date: 1995-10


  • English

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00715883
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Jan 31 1996 12:00AM