The damage related to early freezing is discussed and includes the concept of impressions of ice crystals. At least three mechanisms are involved in this freezing: increased porosity; rupture of adhesion caused by freezing of the film of cement paste which forms around aggregate particles; the formation of ice lenses or the various changes in volume of the concrete structures as freezing or thawing occurs. Concepts used in standard specifications to determine the required prehardening for different types of cement are discussed and comments are made on the possibility of specifying a general strength value as a criterion indicating that concrete has achieved sufficient resistance against early freezing. The influence of air entraining agents is considered and the influence of early freezing on the modulus of elasticity and permeability are discussed. The strength of frozen (but undamaged) concrete compared with unfrozen concrete is discussed, and it is noted that all changes in properties are connected with the volume of freezable water in the pore system of the concrete. Recommendations are made regarding future research, and comments are made on some reports submitted at this symposium.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Winter Concreting, Moscow, October 14-16, 1975.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Cement and Concrete Research Institute

    Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 26
    Stockholm 70,   Sweden 
  • Authors:
    • Bergstroem, S G
  • Publication Date: 1976

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References;
  • Pagination: 41 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00141082
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: CBI 3:76
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 6 1976 12:00AM