This analytic study, one of a series of separately bound works constituting section two of the Annual Report, contains an evaluation of drinker diagnosis and referral activity and rehabilitation countermeasures for 1974 operations of the City of Phoenix Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP). The study provides an overview of the Phoenix ASAP, including a description of the major countermeasure areas. This is followed by a detailed description of the operating characteristics of the judicial/rehabilitation system. Modifications in drinker diagnosis, referral and rehabilitation activities which occurred during 1974 are highlighted in the course of this discussion. Three major changes are identified: a considerably shortened problem-drinker screening test was implemented in mid-1974 as the result of research conducted by the Diagnostic Review Board at St. Luke's Hospital Medical Center (the study reviews the findings of this research); referral to rehabilitation was made solely contingent on the first-stage screening decision of problem or social drinker; and DWI Prevention Workshops replaced the DWI School as the primary educational/ rehabilitation referral resource for clients entering the ASAP system. Evaluation of rehabilitation efforts is addressed through a basic analysis of DWI arrest recidivism for clients entering the ASAP system during the first three years of Project operations. Analysis was accomplished by a series of chi-square tests on the distribution of social, problem and social/problem drinker recidivists and non-recidivists for three major categories of treatment. Comparisons were made between treatment/no treatment groups, between randomly assigned DWI School and control groups, and between DWI Prevention Workshops and its closest treatment counterpart (the DWI School four-session group). Number of recidivist arrests constituted the dependent variable in all comparisons assessing treatment effects. Follow-up exposure periods (time to rearrest) were controlled by computing chi-squares separately for different populations of recidivists according to when they entered treatment. Highly significant differences were obtained in eight of nine treatment/no treatment comparisons. Results for problem drinkers were in the direction of significantly lower recidivism for the group not referred to treatment, while for social drinkers those completing some form of treatment were found to have a significantly lower recidivism rate over time. Significant differences between randomly assigned DWI School treatment and control groups (social/problem drinkers combined) indicated lower recidivism at 2-1/2 years exposure for the one-session and literature only groups. Differences in recidivism between the four-session School and control group were non-significant. A comparison between the four-session and literature only groups produced a significant difference favoring the performance of the literature only group. These findings did not support the hypothesis that greater treatment exposure would result in lower recidivism. Significant differences were also obtained in five of six comparisons between DWI Prevention Workshops and the four- session DWI School. Problem drinker differences favoring the Workshops were highly significant at both exposure periods (six and twelve months), while for social drinkers, significant differences in the same direction were obtained only at the longer exposure time. An additional test comparing differences in social/problem drinker recidivism by type of Workshop completed (Regular vs. Youthful Offender) yielded non-significant results. Results were discussed and interpreted in light of methodological constraints having to do with the way treatment groups were formed; certain analytic techniques were suggested to control between-group differences brought about when clients receive non-random treatment referrals. The final section of the study summarizes these recommendations and previews some of what has already been accomplished during 1975 to eliminate problems in evaluation of ASAP diagnosis, referral and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  • Corporate Authors:

    Highway Safety Research Institute

    Huron Parkway and Baxter Road
    Ann Arbor, MI  United States  48109
  • Publication Date: 1975-10-31

Media Info

  • Features: References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 154 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00133520
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Highway Safety Research Institute
  • Contract Numbers: DOT-HS-052-1-068
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 23 1976 12:00AM