This paper considers how urban transport models may be used to contribute to strategic policy in the area of urban transport externalities, in particular, congestion. The question arises because, for strategic purposes, the value of the model may be more as a framework for thinking than as a source of detailed numerical results. The focus is on congestion because this appears to be the most costly of the external impacts, and because congestion is intimately linked with, and in part determines the traffic patterns which give rise to the other externalities. Costs and benefits are measured in units of time in order to avoid the uncertainties of estimating the value of time. The costs of congestion are considered as being made up of excess travel time due to lower speeds, excess travel time due to diversion to less direct routes, and lost consumer surplus associated with suppressed travel. The relative magnitudes of these components are estimated. Congestion tolls (on homogenous traffic) provide an overall net benefit to society at the expense of a welfare transfer away from road users. The ratio of the net benefit to the transfer is presented as a measure of the equity impact of congestion tolls. (a) For the covering entry of this conference, see IRRD abstract no 861539.


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: 24 p.

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00674986
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: ARRB
  • Files: ITRD, ATRI
  • Created Date: Mar 28 1995 12:00AM