This paper shows how economic analysis can usefully indicate policies to reduce the environmental degradation caused by transport, but other initiatives are sometimes needed to tackle and overcome some of the problems. A table shows different transport modes' environmental impacts, including pollution, waste, noise, and accidents on air, water, and land resources and people. Because many environmental costs fall outside the market, there is no natural obligation for transport users to consider such external factors when deciding to make trips or choosing transport modes. Protection of the environment has been inadequate due to both market failures and intervention failures. Transport is mobile across international boundaries, and its environmental effects can also transcend these boundaries. International treaties and protocols have already been signed to reduce carbon dioxide and CFC emissions. The continual growth in transport use has helped to increase the scale of environmental problems, whose extent and breadth has recently been made clearer by scientific research. Transport is a major contributor to many forms of atmospheric pollution, and also has severe local effects of noise, vibration, and community severance. Economists are helping to evaluate transport's impact, and seeking policies to optimise its environmental damage.

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  • Corporate Authors:

    Institute of Economic Affairs

    2 Lord North Street, Westminster
    London SW1,   England 
  • Authors:
    • Button, K
  • Publication Date: 1994-2


  • English

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: p. 34-8
  • Serial:
    • Volume: 14
    • Issue Number: 2
    • Publisher: Institute of Economic Affairs
    • ISSN: 0265-0665

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00668150
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Files: ITRD
  • Created Date: Nov 2 1994 12:00AM