The effects of the super-carrier innovation upon ocean cargo flows, routes, and port activity are examined in this study. Because of their size these vessels require abundantly flowing cargo sources. This and the locations of market demand have a strong bearing on super-port locations. Super-carrier terminals have been developed at certain favored physical sites, sometimes to the detriment of important traditional ports. From the physical need for deep water, super-carrier use has also required certain route changes and an increase in transhipment except where modifications of natural constraints can be economically realized. From analyses of trends in size, construction costs, and characteristics of world fleets, recent shipbuilding records and records of the heavy volume of bulk cargo now moving in large vessels, the super-carrier with its greater cargo capacity, high degree of automation, and functional specialization has proved more economical to construct, operate, and maintain than scaled smaller bulk carriers. For the super-ships themselves, routes are restricted by the locations of sufficient cargo potentials and the still-limited number of adequate super-ports. Major super-carrier routes are few in number, but heavily used. However, with larger single vessel cargo capacities, the actual number of vessel voyages has increased far less than cargo tonnages. Financial and technical burdens have been placed on many conventional ports by vessel requirements for harbor depth and area as well as for sophisticated facilities. While some ports are specializing in accommodation of other forms of shipping, private corporations are still developing special terminals for super-carriers at new locations. Despite sometimes difficult physical obstacles, these developments are undertaken near important supply and demand areas. Economic, political, or social objectives are at least as important as natural port possibilities. Super-carrier innovation appears to encourage port specialization, and considering development costs and new environmental concerns, discharge duplication of facilities. Development of super-carriers has modified the geography of ocean shipping; these modifications can be expected to continue, perhaps at a diminishing rate as problems of giant vessel size and "over-specialization" become more acute. Trade has been stimulated, route patterns changed, and port functions altered. The relative infancy of the super-carrier concept implies that geographical patterns are being restructured; however, ocean trading patterns are characteristically dynamic, owing to the mutable nature of marine technology and the fluidity of supply and demand circumstances.

  • Corporate Authors:

    State University of New York, Oswego

    Oswego, NY  United States 
  • Authors:
    • Bruffey, J A
  • Publication Date: 1971-8

Media Info

  • Features: Tables;
  • Pagination: 195 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00032745
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: State University of New York, Oswego
  • Report/Paper Numbers: PhD Thesis
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 28 1973 12:00AM