A cryogenic refrigeration method allowed excavation work to continue on a tunnelled section of a sewerage scheme for the Severn-Trent Water Authority in the United Kingdom. A row of freeze tubes installed on either side of the 10 m tunnel length, and penetrating 1 m into the clay base was supplemented by further freeze tubes over the tunnel zone terminating 0.3 m above the tunnel crown. The site lay beneath the carriageway of a road in a suburban area. Environmental considerations, together with the need for rapid refrigeration led to the choice of the liquid nitrogen refrigeration method. The freeze tubes were installed by shell and auger boring methods following a programme of PFA injection to ensure that any voids resulting from the collapse were filled. Liquid nitrogen was then fed to the freeze tubes from an insulated container, placed close to the site via suitable circuitry. The required frozen arch was thus created. Tunnelling was resumed five days from commencement of refrigeration and all excavation, ring erection and grouting operations were undertaken in another 15 days during which refrigeration was maintained on a reduced scale. No difficulties were experienced with the freezing or mining machinery as antifreeze lubricants were used; cement grouting was undertaken without delay and the miners found the working conditions bearable.

  • Availability:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Wells (Edward) and Sons, Limited

    143/145 Camberwell New Road
    London SE5,   England 
  • Authors:
    • HARRIS, J S
    • Reed, R J
  • Publication Date: 1975-9

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; Photos;
  • Pagination: p. 46-48
  • Serial:
    • Volume: 8
    • Issue Number: 5
    • ISSN: 0017-4653

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00129026
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 10 1976 12:00AM