Illustrations (pictures and diagrams) are presented of selected equipment that have been employed by investigators to measure the consistency of bitumens in absolute units. Early empirical methods are included and an attempt is made to make the survey as complete as possible with respect to types of viscometers and significant modifications of basic instruments. Three types of instruments were used by Obermeyer in 1877 to measure absolute viscosity of black pitch. The apparatus used by Trouton in 1906 is described. The flow of pitch in channels was reported in 1910 and modern silding plate viscometers are reviewed. Studies involving the movement of a plummet in a container of pitch is described. Classical studies are reported of the viscosity of pitch by various methods; coaxial cylinder displacement; falling ball; and capillary tube to cover the range from 9 c to 100 c. In the period 1930-1950, asphalt viscosity studies progressed together with variations of the known instruments. The studies were in 2 areas: those relating to asphalt, coal tar pitches, liquid asphalts, etc. where the absolute viscosities were at a low level at various temperatures; and studies of materials having viscosities above 10 to the 3rd power to 10 to the 8th power pascal seconds and other measurements of moduli for semisolid materials. For the low viscosity materials the methods used were based on either flow through tubes or on the rotating shear concepts of Coette. A device proposed for higher viscosities is illustrated. The rotating horizontal annular viscometer, capillary viscometers, new procedures for evaluation of recoil in tension, compression, torsion and response to dynamic tests are covered. The history of the use of dynamic techniques to study the elasticity of bitumen is reviewed. Recent developments are also outlined.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • 50th Anniversary Historical Review and Index of Proceedings, 1928-1974.
  • Corporate Authors:

    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

    155 Experimental Engineering Building
    Minneapolis, MN  United States  55455
  • Authors:
    • Schweyer, H E
  • Conference:
  • Publication Date: 1974

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; References;
  • Pagination: p. 121-157
  • Serial:
    • Volume: 43A

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00127524
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 7 1976 12:00AM