The results are presented of a laboratory model study for square anchors in dry sand subjected to inclined loads applied with a nonrigid load connection. In the testing program, full force was applied by a cable inclined at desired angles attached at the center of the shallow horizontal model anchor plates. The geometric parameters of the problem are illustrated. Pullout tests were performed with 2-1/2 in. x 2-1/2 in. square and 1/8-in. thick aluminum plates in a sand box measuring 2 ft. x 2 ft. x 2 ft. oven dry silica sand was used for the tests. The angle of friction was determined. To determine the critical embedment ratio, an initial series of vertical pullout tests was conducted. A second series of tests was conducted to determine the breakout resistance of a horizontal anchor of similar diminisions as used in the first series, under inclined loads. The results of the tests lead to the conclusion that when the load connection is such that the anchor is free to rotate, the ultimate pullout load for horizontal anchors at any embedment ratio generally increases with the load inclination as measured with respect to the vertical for (alpha equals or less than 45 deg.). It is noted that for a given embendment ratio, as the inclination of load increases. The frictional resistance at the soil-cable interface also increases. However, considering the size of the cable used for these tests, this does not appear to make any significant contribution to the increased ultimate pullout resistance. The increase of ultimate failure load may be attributed to the unsymmetric soil failure developed around the anchor.

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00127107
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: ASCE #11538 Proceeding
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Dec 29 1975 12:00AM