TRAFFIC RELATED POLLUTANTS, THEIR EFFECTS AND ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES. A REVIEW

Air pollutants can be divided into two broad categories: primary pollutants which are released directly into the atmosphere; and secondary pollutants, which are formed as a result of atmospheric reactions between primary pollutants. In chapter one, the vehicular derived pollutants are described. The major primary pollutants are: carbon monoxide (CO); hydrocarbons (HC); nitrogen oxides (NOx); sulphur dioxide (SO2); and particulates including lead compounds. Vehicle emissions are associated with a range of secondary pollutants including ozone (O3); and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In chapter two, the effects and control of vehicular pollutants are highlighted. Various modifications to engine design to reduce emissions are outlined. These include: lean burn technology; catalyst technology; air injection systems; and particulate traps for diesel engines. Details of current British legislation and European regulations are also provided. In the third chapter, analytical techniques for air pollutants are highlighted. These include for CO: non-dispersive infrared analysis (NDIR); gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detectors; electrochemical techniques; and a new method developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), utilising tunable lasers as the radiation source. The techniques for measurement of NO include: non-dispersive and dispersive infra-red (IR); ultraviolet (UV); electrochemical sensors and chemiluminescence, which is the currently preferred technique. Techniques for the measurement of sulphur dioxide include the conductometric method; and newer techniques of flame photometry and pulsed fluorescence. The collection and sampling methods for lead particulates and PAH's are also described. In the last chapter, the Transport and Road Research Laboratory's (TRRL) mobile laboratory is described. The laboratory is equipped to monitor atmospheric CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, gaseous hydrocarbons, and total particulates. Particulate samples are subsequently tested for both lead and selected PAH's. This review contains an extensive bibliography of the subject.

  • Corporate Authors:

    Middlesex Polytechnic

    Urban Pollution Research Centre, Queensway
    Enfield, Middlesex,   England 
  • Authors:
    • MCCRAE, I S
  • Publication Date: 1988-6

Language

  • English

Media Info

  • Pagination: 130 p.
  • Serial:
    • Issue Number: 10

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00606412
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL)
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 31 1991 12:00AM